Fixation Techniques and Artifacts

Practical consideration of fixation technique

Concentration of fixative Expand Experiments have been performed to reveal the effects of different concentrations of aldehyde fixatives on tissue morphology. Over a 10-fold range, varying the concentrations of formaldehyde from 2% to 20% in a fixative solution had little effect on the cytoplasmic volume in one-centimeter blocks of rat kidney biopsies. Only at very […]

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Theoretic consideration of fixation mechanism

Protein crosslinking by paraformaldehyde Expand Aldehyde crosslinks are formed between protein molecules, in particular with the basic amino acid – lysine. Only those lysine residues on the exterior of the protein molecule react with aldehydes. Because protein is a universal constituent of the cell, present not only in the cytosol but also in the cytoskeleton […]

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"I am really impressed with your approach. We tried multiple times previously to create monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to claudin-2 and MLCK1. We have had limited success generating polyclonals and no success generating monoclonals. You have generated outstanding monoclonals to both. I look forward to continuing to work with you."

Jerrold R. Turner, M.D., Ph.D.

Brigham and Women’s Hospital | Harvard Medical School

"The polyclonal antibody you generated for KIAA0408 is stunning! KIAA0408 is a novel cilium molecule that has never been studied. So, clearly there will be a lot of demand for it as we have discovered a very interesting finding and the story will be published in a high impact journal. I am strongly inclined to generate monoclonal antibody for this protein too and we should think about patenting it."

Univ.-Prof. Jay Gopalakrishnan PhD

Heinrich-Heine-Universität | Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf

"Your ARL13B antibody works beautifully!!! We’re so happy to have a cilia-specific antibody made in rat! I can send you high resolution images to be posted on your website."

Julie Craft Van De Weghe, PhD

School of Medicine | University of Washington

"The assay is a homophilic interaction mediated cell adhesion on purified protein (in this case, immobilized purified Pcdhga9 to Pcdhga9 expressed on cell surface). Compared to control, cell adhesion is reduced in the presence of Pcdhga9 monoclonal antibody supernatants!"

Divyesh Joshi, PhD

School of Medicine | Yale University

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